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Forensic Fraud- Evaluating Law Enforcement and Forensic Science Cultures in the .

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内容提示: Forensic Fraud. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-408073-7.00001-XCopyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.1CHAPTER 1Introduction“Where a proffered expert knows himself or herself to be a quack or otherwise to be offering false testimony, the situation is like that of any other witness who is perpetrating a fraud on the court. Such acts are illegal as well as unethical.”Michael J. Saks (2001)Professor of Law & PsychologySandra Day O’Connor College of LawThis textbook presents original resea...

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Forensic Fraud. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-408073-7.00001-XCopyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.1CHAPTER 1Introduction“Where a proffered expert knows himself or herself to be a quack or otherwise to be offering false testimony, the situation is like that of any other witness who is perpetrating a fraud on the court. Such acts are illegal as well as unethical.”Michael J. Saks (2001)Professor of Law & PsychologySandra Day O’Connor College of LawThis textbook presents original research that examines and correlates the traits of fraudulent forensic examiners, their fraud-related activity, and their places of employment.1 To ensure timeliness and provide for comparability, this research is limited in scope to those cases revealed in the United States from 2000 to 2010. It is a study that seeks to inform and add to our theoreti-cal understanding of a specifc yet infuential strain of employee fraud in the criminal justice system. Based on the fndings of this study, potential causal factors are identifed and discussed. Subsequently, relevant fraud management strategies are proposed.BACKGROUNDThe events that have accumulated over the course of this author’s career to confrm the need for this work, and to provide suffcient motivation for its completion, are numerous and ongoing. The earliest took place imme-diately after the completion of this author’s graduate studies in forensic science in 1995: a research paper that had been placed online was taken in its entirety and presented elsewhere under the name of another. Upon dis-covery and further investigation, it was learned that the person responsible, 1This entire textbook, including the original research presented within, is adapted from a dissertation submitted by Brent E. Turvey in full completion of a Doctorate of Philosophy in Criminology, accepted by Bond University in October 2012. 2CHAPTER 1: Introductiona forensic psychologist, was no stranger to fraud. Then the Chair of the Forensic Science program at National University in San Diego, California, it was learned that the plagiarist had purloined the research of others in at least one Canadian journal. He had also been accused of misrepresenting the nature of his relationship with the Orange County Coroner’s Offce by means of printing up misleading business cards. Further still, his profes-sional resume was full of incomplete and misleading information and affl-iations. Ultimately, and subsequent to a complaint fled by this researcher, this individual was forced to resign his membership with the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, and contemporaneously ceased to be the Chair of the Forensic Science program at National University. That some-one would do these things so openly, let alone a professional of apparent high standing in the forensic science community, and that nobody had complained about it in writing save a recently graduated student of forensic science, left an impression.Over the past 17 years of forensic practice, this author has observed or learned of countless instances of unrepentant forensic fraud by practitioners from all over the United States, and around the world. A severe outcome, with proven fraudsters stripped of their employment, penalized by their respective professional organizations, and criminally charged is not at all typical. Often fraud is minimized, ignored, or in extreme cases simply denied by those in the forensic science community. For example, Budowle (2007), speaking for the FBI crime laboratory, insists that “most people do good jobs,” that forensic fraud is not a signifcant issue, and that any problems are “most often human error”; Collins and Jarvis (2007), speak-ing for an organization formed by those associated with the American Soci-ety of Crime Lab Directors Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD-LAB), similarly assert that “Forensic scientists are human beings. As such they will sometimes make mistakes and, in some very rare instances, push the boundaries of ethical behavior”; and, in response to multiple and ongoing scandals involving examiner fraud since 2005 at the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory (USACIL), the Army’s Criminal Investigation Com-mand, which oversees the lab, has conceded only that “As with all crime labs across the county, human error does occur from time to time” (Taylor and Doyle)—in essence ignoring the issue of fraud altogether.2 Many leaders in the forensic science community, it seems, are content to explain fraudulent examiners away, or deny their existence, despite continuous and sometimes overwhelming evidence of the problem. This sets the tone for the attitudes and arguments that must necessarily follow from their subordinates, as will be discussed in later chapters.2For further discussion, see Chapters 6 and 7 with respect to Bad Apple Theory. 3BackgroundDifferent from that of many forensic science stakeholders, this author’s per-spective has been enhanced by at least the following major events in the foren-sic science community over the past ten years: 1. The ongoing and in some cases repeated instances of major crime lab scandal, to include multiple instances of fraud and error, over the past 15 years (see general discussions in Cooley, 2004, 2007a, and 2007b; DiFonzo, 2005; DiFonzo and Stern, 2007; Giannelli, 2010; and Thompson, 2009).32. The publication of the National Academy of Sciences Report on forensic science (aka the NAS Report; Edwards and Gotsonis, 2009). The NAS Report was a congressionally funded system-wide investigation and review of the forensic science disciplines and related forensic laboratory practice. It was initiated by the United States Congress owing to the publication of an ongoing series of critical legal reviews regarding the evident bias and lack of science in forensic practice; the ongoing occurrence of highly publicized forensic frauds, blunders, and forensic laboratory scandals across the United States; and the ever-increasing number of DNA exonerations sourced back to fawed or misleading forensic evidence documented by groups such as the Innocence Project (see http://www.innocenceproject.org; see also Garrett, 2008; and Garrett and Neufeld, 2009). The NAS Report confrmed the lack of scientifc foundation for the majority of forensic science methods, and an inappropriate alignment between forensic scientists and their law enforcement employers. It also recognized the lack of empirical research into the nature and causes of forensic fraud and error. 3. The publication of Preventable Error: A Report on Prosecutorial Misconduct in California 1997–2009 by the Northern California Innocence Project (Ridolphi and Possley, 2010). This landmark study of the largest criminal justice system in the United States (California) found prosecutorial misconduct more common than previously thought, including that related to suppressing or misrepresenting physical evidence. It also found that when harmful misconduct does occur (p. 3) “those empowered to address the problem—California state and federal courts, prosecutors and the California State Bar—repeatedly fail to take meaningful action. Courts fail to report prosecutorial misconduct (despite having a statutory obligation to do so), prosecutors deny that it occurred, and the California State Bar almost never disciplines it.” This is clearly related to, and not surprisingly similar to, the problems faced in the forensic science community regarding forensic fraud. 3Numerous specifc crime lab scandals are adduced throughout this dissertation as necessary. 4CHAPTER 1: IntroductionThese experiences and events, augmented by ongoing myriad professional encounters with fraudulent examiners as part of regular casework, have pro-vided a durable source of motivation for this work.DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMSTo contextualize this work, and facilitate continuity between this and any future or related projects, it is necessary to operationalize at least the following key terms in advance: scientifc misconduct, forensic examiner/ forensic practitioner, forensic fraud, and perjury. Other pertinent terms will be defned as needed. Scientifc misconductAccording to the guidelines adopted by the United States Offce of Research Integrity, scientifc misconduct is defned by acts that include the fabrication of data, the falsifcation of results, and plagiarism. However, it has also been argued to include ghost authorship and the falsifcation of credentials (Krimsky, 2007). While the wrongfulness of falsifying scientifc credentials and fabricating data is fairly straightforward, the longstanding practice of ghost authorship in the scientifc community requires some explanation. As explained in Krimsky (2007; p. 450): “Ghost authorship occurs when the person whose name appears on the publication was not involved either in doing the research, framing the ideas behind the article, or in writing the article. Alternatively, it can occur when an individual who has made substantial contributions to the manuscript is not named as an author or whose contributions are not cited in the acknowledgments.” This practice is also referred to by some as “gift authorship” (Jones, 2003; p. 245). Essen-tially, it involves hiding who did the work by giving credit that has not actually been earned. Forensic examinersThe terms forensic examiner and forensic practitioner will be used throughout this text, and generally refer to any professional who examines and interprets facts, evidence, or data with the expectation of courtroom testimony. As explained in Turvey (2011; p. xxii):Criminal investigators are tasked with serving the criminal justice system by establishing the objective facts and evidence of a given case. Forensic examiners are tasked with analyzing the evidence and interpreting the facts objectively.Forensic examiners are defned by the fact that they anticipate courtroom testi-mony. As explained in Thornton and Peterson (2007; p. 3): 5Defnitions of Key TermsThe single feature that distinguishes forensic scientists from any other scientist is the certain expectation that they will appear in court and testify to their fndings and offer an opinion as to the signifcance of those fndings. The forensic scientist will testify not only to what things are, but to what things mean.This provides that forensic scientists do not just test or examine evidence and then record the results; they are meant to explore, understand, and explain its signifcance to an attorney, judge, or jury. The defning quality of forensic examiners is the possibility that they will be called upon to present their fnd-ings, under penalty of perjury, in a court of law. Subsequently, they will be asked to explain to the court what those fndings mean and how they came to them. This can be as straightforward as recording information about drug identifcations, weights, and cash amounts; or it can be as complex as recon-structing a crime scene and determining cause and manner of death.Forensic examiners, therefore, exist across a broad spectrum of professions. This would include criminalists and other forensic scientists such as foren-sic pathologists, forensic toxicologists, frearm and tool mark examiners, forensic odontologists, crime reconstructionists, criminal proflers, forensic criminologists, forensic psychologists, and even forensic victimologists. It would also include an array of law enforcement offcers processing evidence or testifying as experts in a variety of specialty areas, such as gang culture, sexual assault, drug dealer profles, drug lab profles, and case linkage anal-ysis. The scope of the present research is limited, however, to forensic exam-iners that work directly with physical evidence. The reason for this will be explained later.Forensic fraudForensic fraud occurs when forensic examiners provide sworn testimony, opin-ions, or documents (e.g., affdavits, reports, or professional resumes) bound for court that contain deceptive or misleading information, fndings, opinions, or conclusions, deliberately offered in order to secure an unfair or unlawful gain. As defned in the present research, forensic fraud is necessarily that which is committed by a forensic examiner. It is distinct from deceptive or misleading acts that may be committed by others, such as fact witnesses, patrol offcers, attorneys, and judges.Forensic fraud, while certainly a form of scientifc misconduct, does not neces-sarily involve perjury. Perjury is a criminal charge. It is the act of lying or making verifably false statements on a material matter under oath or affrmation in a court of law or in any sworn statements in writing (Black, 1990). A violation of specifc criminal statutes, it is not suffcient for a statement to be false to meet the threshold of perjury; it must be an intentionally false statement regarding a 6CHAPTER 1: Introductionmaterial fact—a fact relevant to the case at hand. As further explained in Turvey (2003; p. 734):The act of lying or making verifably false statements on a material matter under oath or affrmation in a court of law or in any sworn statements in writing. A criminal act, it is not suffcient that the statement be false to be considered perjury; it must be regarding a material fact—a fact that is relevant to the situation. Consequently, not all lies under oath are considered perjury.For example, in Title 18 of the U.S. Code of Laws, §1621 “General Perjury” provides that perjury involves a person “having taken an oath before a compe-tent tribunal, offcer, or person, in any case in which a law of the United States authorizes an oath to be administered, that he will testify, declare, depose, or certify truly, or that any written testimony, declaration, deposition, or certif-icate by him subscribed, is true, willfully and contrary to such oath states or subscribes any material matter which he does not believe to be true.”As it stands, not all intentionally false statements made under oath by a foren-sic examiner are considered perjury—nor are all forensic examiners who give false testimony under oath charged with a crime. The decision to bring such charges is made at the discretion of the District Attorney’s Offce in the juris-diction where the false testimony occurred—meaning that it is often charged inconsistently and based on political considerations rather than actual merit.Cleveland Police Department Crime LaboratoryIn 1988, Michael Green was convicted of rape; however, he was later exonerated by DNA evidence and released in 2001. As reported in Gillispie (2004; p. A1):Edward Blake, a pioneer in the use of DNA for criminal investigations who was hired by Green’s attorneys, concluded that Serowik “intentionally fabricated false evidence against Green, testifed at Mr. Green’s trial with a reckless disregard for the truth, and committed scientifc fraud.”Blake wrote that Serowik turned a washcloth into incriminating evidence against Green by making assumptions that had no scientifc basis. Serowik told jurors that the man who used the washcloth to wipe himself after raping a cancer patient in May 1988 at the Cleveland Clinic Hotel had the same blood type as Green’s. Serowik also testifed that the semen on the washcloth could have been left by only 16 percent of the male population. Without his faulty assumptions, Blake wrote, Serowik should have concluded that no man could have been excluded as a possible source of the semen on the washcloth, rendering it meaningless in the Green prosecution.Serowik also testifed that a hair found on the washcloth shared similarities with hair taken from Green’s head, and went on to say that the likelihood they came from two different people was about 1 in 40,000. But another expert hired by Green’s attorneys said Serowik should not have made that assertion because hair analyses aren’t precise enough to calculate probabilities.In addition, Serowik admitted that he had no idea what part of the body the hair came JOSEPH SEROWIK, CRIMINALIST 7Defnitions of Key Termsfrom, making any comparisons scientifcally improper. Determining the part of the body a hair comes from is not only essential, it’s easy to do, wrote Max M. Houck, director of the Forensic Science Initiative and a professor at West Virginia University. With proper training, he wrote, it’s about as diffcult as distinguish-ing a Volkswagen from a Cadillac. The fact that Serowik apparently couldn’t do it, together with his misuse and misstatement of statistics, led Houck to conclude that “Joseph Serowik demonstrates a fundamental lack of knowledge about conducting forensic hair examinations.”“Mr. Serowik was allowed to conduct hair examinations without proper education, training, supervision, or protocols,” Houck wrote. “He conducted these examinations in numerous cases, repeatedly made the same mistakes, and did not seek any training by qualifed experts in forensic hair examinations.”Houck and Blake pointed out that Serowik was supervised by someone who knew even less about the scientifc disciplines involved than he did. And yet it was [Victor] Kovacic, the lab supervisor, who oversaw and signed off on the hair analysis in the Green case. A retired police offcer who has headed the Cleveland crime lab since 1985, Kovacic acknowledged in February that he had no expertise in either hair analysis or serology (the study of bodily fuids) and that his technicians could have made up their fndings and he wouldn’t have known the difference. It was a “gross deviation from accepted practice” to have an inexperienced serologist supervised by someone with no experience or training in the feld, Blake wrote in his report.Ultimately, Mr. Green sued the City of Cleveland and won a settlement that included 1.6 million dollars. It also included a mandatory forensic audit of the casework conducted by Mr. Serowik and the Cleveland Police Crime Laboratory in gen-eral (a random sample); this resulted in the review of approx-imately 100 cases (Green v. City of Cleveland, et al., 2004). During his sworn deposition for that action, Mr. Serowik agreed that his assumptions about the evidence in the Green case, and his subsequent expert testimony, were “inappropri-ate” (Gillispie, 2004). Despite acknowledging his false testi-mony, Mr. Serowik was not charged with perjury.Initially, the Cleveland Police Crime Laboratory retained Mr. Serowik as an employee, but removed him from foren-sic casework. However, later in 2004, he was placed on leave and then ultimately terminated (Milicia, 2007). Mr. Serowik was never charged with any crimes, nor did he suffer any direct consequences, as the result of his conduct. Quite the opposite, in fact: in 2004, he was hired as a forensic science instructor by Youngstown State University.As a result of the mandatory audit of Mr. Serowik’s casework and testimony, two other convictions were questioned by the Innocence Project, which reported that (Salzberg, 2007):New DNA tests show that two men’s convictions for a 1997 murder were based on fraudulent testimony from a City of Cleveland forensic analyst—whose false testimony also wrongfully convicted another man who was exonerated in 2001 and led to an audit of cases covering a 16-year period that revealed serious problems in at least a half-dozen convictions—the Innocence Project said today. In legal papers fled today, the Innocence Project and the Ohio Innocence Project asked state courts to vacate the convictions of Thomas Siller and Walter Zimmer.In 2009, because of Mr. Serowik’s testimony, Mr. Siller’s conviction was vacated, and he was ordered to receive a new trial (Puente, 2009).This case involved fraud by a law enforcement-employed forensic examiner related to both physical evidence and expert credentials. According to the record, Mr. Serowik gave intentionally false and misleading testimony about his fndings, what they meant, the current state of the forensic science literature, and his expertise. As such, his acts of fraud having been uncovered during the parameters set for this study (2000–2010), data from Mr. Serowik was included in the fnal data set. See Chapter 8, “Forensic Fraud, 2000–2010: Data and Frequency,” for details regarding specifc inclusion criteria and data collected.JOSEPH SEROWIK, CRIMINALIST CONTINUED 8CHAPTER 1: IntroductionRATIONALEForensic fraud exists as a sore and often forbidden subject in the forensic science community. The frequency and conditions of its occurrence have not been studied to any signifcant degree, and incidents are regularly hidden from public scrutiny to maintain the reputations of those police agencies and crime laboratories that have suffered its stain. As will be discussed, this is at least in part a refection of the reality that those who have direct knowledge of forensic fraud have a vested interest in keeping these instances from becoming public knowledge. It preserves the image of their agency or lab, and by extension their own, out of concern for present testimonial credibility and future employment prospects. Additionally, it must be understood that forensic practitioners are by defnition involved in sensitive casework. As a function of their employment contracts, they may operate under strict confdentiality agreements or non-disclosure clauses that might preclude communication of any kind about active case-work—especially that which refects negatively on their employer. The fear of losing employment-related income (e.g., being fred), and any future employ-ment prospects, is generally suffcient enough for most to avoid causing a breach, even when it is in the public interest.The majority of forensic scientists are also employed directly by police agen-cies or by crime labs associated with law enforcement and the prosecution (Peterson and Hickman, 2005). Consequently, open discussion and study of forensic fraud have long been considered a “third rail” in the forensic com-munity (Cooley and Turvey, 2011). A brief explanation is necessary: the third rail is the method of providing electrical power to a railway, such as a mass transit system, by means of an exposed conductor. Anyone who touches the third rail is killed instantly by a surge of electricity. So it is with the issue of fraud. Such a discussion necessarily involves critical review of the actions and motives of law enforcement, prosecutors, and their scientifc agents. These are not professional communities that are generally receptive of criticism or outside review, and they are frequently hostile to external or independent efforts involving either (Capers, 2008; Chin and Wells, 1998; Cooper, 2009a; Dorfman, 1999; Mollen, 1994; and Shockley-Eckles, 2011). Consequently, any forensic practitioner who raises these or related issues risks touches the third rail—being the object of hostility and derision within the law enforce-ment and government lab community, and committing career suicide in the process. This means risking not only employment, but also one’s friends, colleagues, and professional identity.4 4The issue will be discussed further in Chapter 7, “Forensic Fraud: Prior Research.” 9RationaleThis shared cultural silence regarding the existence and persistence of forensic fraud has resulted in an absence of clear or emergent data to enable ongoing scientifc study of the phenomenon. The problem faced within the forensic science community, and understood by many within the criminal justice system, is described in Castelle (1999): Experienced criminal defense lawyers long ago realized that police perjury haunts courthouses throughout the country. In a similar manner, lawyers with signifcant experience with forensic science are beginning to realize that fraudulent forensic science may be equally endemic and, with tragic results, may permeate the criminal justice system in every state.…[W]ith depressing regularity, respected forensic scientists will concede their own knowledge of instances of “dry-labbing”—faking of data by former colleagues and employees that they have encountered in their own careers. Because it is safe to assume that most of the forensic science fraud that occurs goes undetected, the amount of fraud that has been revealed bears disturbing implications for any estimate of the amount of fraud that passes without notice.Forensic fraud, in the current setting, has remained an unexplored, undevel-oped, and unresolved empirical mystery.Anecdotal evidence is widely available, however. Individual fraudsters, such as criminalists Fred Zain of West Virginia and Joyce Gilchrist of Oklahoma, have even achieved a level of infamy. However, a larger picture of forensic fraud is lacking, as explained in Cooley (2006), where he discusses what it is fair to call “the crime lab crisis” (p. 513):The current state of U.S. crime labs, and their regular lack of qualifed personnel, has forced Barry Scheck (2004, p. 4), defense attorney, DNA expert, and cofounder of The Innocence Project, to conclude, “Everyone should know our crime laboratories are in a crisis, reeling from an epidemic of scandals refecting decades of shoddy work, usually from bad actors producing incompetent or fraudulent results, but sometimes from methodologies that have been exposed as unreliable.”Although some may argue that Scheck’s comments must be viewed through a cautious lens, given his allegiance to the criminal defense bar, it must be conceded that his position is actually reinforced by numerous high-ranking forensic practitioners and administrators. For instance, Milton E. Nix, director of the Georgia Bureau of Investigation’s crime lab, admitted to Congress, “You may fnd this an unusual statement, but I am in total agreement with the National Association of Defense Attorneys when it comes to quality 10CHAPTER 1: Introductionand accuracy of crime lab examinations and analysis” (“Crime Lab Modernization,” 2001). Similarly, Barry Fisher, director of the Los Angeles County crime lab, made the following comment regarding the lack of crime lab oversight (as quoted in Graham, 2001, p. 10): “I don’t think anyone can tell you what’s really going on [in the nation’s crime laboratories].… The truth is, we don’t know.”The criminal justice system needs a working sense of what is going on with respect to the range and frequency of forensic fraud in courtrooms, police agencies, and government-funded crime labs. Until this has been achieved, it is not possible to effectively anticipate and correct the circumstances that allow fraud to occur, let alone address fraud directly when it is revealed. That is purpose of this work: to defne forensic fraud, to identify its occur-rence in the justice system, to help render a sense of its nature and origins, and ultimately to help inform related legislation and agency policy. In the process, it is hoped that it will also contribute to the development policies and procedures necessary to maintain the integrity of the criminal justice system.It is important to note that, in the current forensic science environment, empir-ical research on the subject of forensic fraud is necessary if only due to its utter absence (Edwards and Gotsonis, 2009). However, it is also clear that the vast majority of forensic scientists, being employed by or aligned with the prose-cution, do not feel free to carry it out themselves (Inman and Rudin, 2006). It must fall to those that are generally unaffliated to avoid political conse-quences or institutional sanction. It is with a keen awareness of such realities that this work has been undertaken.SCOPE AND ORIGINALITYA number of publications touch anecdotally, or ideographically, on the issue of fraud committed by forensic examiners (see generally Castelle, 1999; Connors et al., 1996; Cooley, 2004 and 2007b; Cooley and Oberfeld, 2007; Giannelli, 1997, 2001, and 2002; Imwinkelried, 2003; Kelly and Wearne, 1998; Koehler, 1993; Midkiff, 2004; Pyrek, 2007; Raeder, 2007; Saks, 2003, Saks et al., 2007; Samuel, 1994; Scheck et al., 2000; Starrs, 1993 and 2004; Turvey, 2003 and 2011; and Wilson, 1992). All of these works reference the problem of forensic fraud while only skimming its surface, to show that it can and does happen without any sense of frequency, consequences, or community response. Addi-tionally, these works originate almost entirely from the legal community, save Pyrek (2007), a journalist; and Starrs (1993 and 2004), Midkiff (2004), Turvey (2011), and Wilson (1992)—all forensic practitioners. Moreover, almost none of these works represent formal research on forensic fraud per se; rather they 11Thesis Statements and the Prevailing Wisdom exist as technical notes, collected interviews, or discussions regarding selected case studies.There has been only one prior study specifc to cases involving forensic fraud. This was a descriptive review of limited data from 42 cases with a proposed motivational typology by the current researcher (Turvey, 2003). In this study, the scope was highly inclusive, the data was limited, the discussion was cur-sory, and the fndings were very much preliminary in nature.The current study not only is original, but has been conducted from a unique perspective—that of a practicing and testifying forensic scientist. It will, and for the frst time, provide signifcant examination of the nature and breadth of forensic fraud. This is accomplished by examining the existing cases in the public domain at such a depth, and in such a manner, as never before.As already mentioned, the nature and scope of forensic fraud have essen-tially been unexamined by the forensic science community, and therefore it is unknown in a formal empirical sense. This research attempts to fll that gap in the literature. Without it, the development and implementation of strat-egies to prevent such fraud, and effect forensic reform, will be under-informed and may even be misguided.existing The value of this research should be self-evident: to defne the nature of the problem of forensic fraud in the forensic community, to help understand the social contexts and personal motives that facilitate forensic fraud, to help develop informed strategies for mitigating forensic fraud, and to keep the criminal justice system honest regarding the types of reforms required to identify and prevent forensic fraud. It will also contribute to, and be based upon, criminological theories associated with employee fraud and general criminality.THESIS STATEMENTS AND THE PREVAILING WISDOMCurrently, the prevailing wisdom within the forensic science community with respect to forensic fraud is that it is only a minor problem, rarely occurring—akin to a few bad apples spoiling the barrel. As explained in Thompson (2009; p. 1028): “Public discourse on this issue has construed forensic science foul-ups as the product of individual intellectual and moral failure. According to the standard account, the problem is limited to ‘a few bad apples’, and the solution follows from that analysis—the bad apples need to be identifed and either re-trained or replaced.” Similar views are expressed in Edwards and (2009) and Pyrek (2007), where outright fraud by forensic practitioners is Gotsonis 12CHAPTER 1: Introductionpresented as a “rare” event, generally contained to a single individual who has lost his or her professional compass. In contrast, this researcher’s core hypoth-eses are as follows: 1. Forensic fraud tends to be the result of cultural, pathological, and systemic causes rather than the narrow motives of single individuals, as the circumstances surrounding it are allowed to develop and persist by those in the immediate forensic environment.2. Though private (e.g., defense) forensic practitioners are routinely characterized as biased or mercenary, those working on behalf of the state (the police and the prosecution) are responsible for a substantial amount, if not the majority, of known cases of forensic fraud. The current research and subsequent dissertation will seek to support, expand, or refute these statements, as well as explore the origins of forensic fraud.APPROACH OVERVIEWThis research systemically outlines the major forms of employee-related fraud found in law enforcement and scientifc cultures. As part of these initial chap-ters, cases excluded from the current data under examination will be discussed, and general employee fraud theories will be considered. Later chapters will deal specifcally with types of fraud that exist in the forensic sciences, to include a literature review specifc to this phenomenon. Theoretical causes and origins of forensic fraud will also be considered, through the related criminological lenses of Rout...

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